treatment for toluene toxicity

Toluene naturally occurs in crude oil at low levels and, as such, toluene is typically generated during the process of making fuels from crude oil. The physiological basis of toluene toxicity in relation to the activated sludge microorganisms, however, remains poorly characterized. Toluene may also cause significant renal damage especially with chronic use. The central nervous system (CNS) is the primary target organ for toluene toxicity in both humans and animals for acute (short-term) and chronic (long-term) exposures. Mild to moderate exposure requires no significant measures and symptoms pass in a short period of time. View non-human toxicity values for 2,4-toluene diisocyanate in WISER. Toluene is a hydrocarbon, C 6 H 5 CH 3, also known as toluol and methyl benzene.It is a colorless, highly refractive inflammable liquid obtained from tolu and other resins and from coal tar. Toluene is added to gasoline, used to produce benzene, and used as a solvent. Exposure to toluene may occur from breathing ambient or indoor air affected by such sources. Treatment for Exposure and Toxicity. Context: Toluene inhalation is a common form of drug abuse throughout the world. These disorders have different treatments and differentiation is important. Laboratory testing for acute toluene toxicity is hampered by the fact that blood tests for toluene and urinary tests for hippuric acid are not available in most hospitals. Severe acute and chronic exposure requires supportive measures such as : Inhalation of toluene (eg by 'glue-sniffing') may cause either a high anion-gap or a normal anion gap acidosis. There is no specific medication for treating toluene toxicity. It boils at 110.4 C. and has an odor similar to that of benzene. Toluene (methylbenzene, toluol, phenylmethane) is an aromatic hydrocarbon (C7 H8) commonly used as an industrial solvent for the manufacturing of paints, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and rubber. The prognosis of Toluene Poisoning is dependent on the amount of substance consumed, time between consumption and treatment, severity of the symptoms, as well as general health status of the patient If the individual can recover from the symptoms, with appropriate medication and early support, the outcome is generally good The high anion gap is probably a consequence of its metabolism to hippuric acid. It is identified as CAS#108-88-3, and the United Nations Department of Transportation's number for toluene is UN#1294. Therefore, awareness should be lent to toluene … List of known side effects. 8.6.4: Toluene toxicity. Toluene toxicity is a clinical diagnosis, although serum toluene and urine hippuric acid have been described as diagnostic measures. This process results in the loss of the cations Mg2þ and Ca2þ as well as other small molecules. Patients with toluene toxicity may initially be suspected of having ethylene glycol toxicity especially as the presentation may be similar (eg a patient with mental obtundation, appearance of intoxication and a metabolic acidosis). Hypokalemic paralysis and renal failure are life-threatening complications. ATSDR Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry BAEP Brainstem auditory evoked potentials BMD Benchmark dose BMDL BMD lower 95% confidence limit BMDS Benchmark dose modeling software BMR Benchmark response BTEX Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes CAS Chemical Abstracts Service Acute toluene toxicity causes neurological changes as well as various metabolic alterations. Toxicity is apparently due to the interaction of toluene with the cytoplasmic membrane. 16,20 In our case, diagnostic delay and improper sample handling rendered these tests inconclusive.

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