toluene recreational use

The log octanol/water partition coefficient (Kow) is 2.73. Advocates of this philosophy point to the many well-known artists and intellectuals who h… 1994). Desai R, Shamim S, Patel Exposure levels were not given, but the average urinary excretion of hippuric acid, a metabolite of toluene, was given at 4 g/l compared to the normal level of 0.6 g/l (Sandmeyer, 1989). Cureus. Toluene is a common solvent, e.g. Aside from removal of the toxic source, no direct treatment exists for toluene toxicity and care is supportive only. Gasoline, containing up to 7% toluene by weight, represents the most significant source of toluene used in this country.8 Myriad accounts of cases of acute and chronic toluene-induced encephalopathy exist and occur in the setting of accidental or intentional inhalation. This study did not reveal significant effects of toluene level, of exposure duration, and of interactions between toluene and noise intensity. In advanced cases, the pattern of multifocal white matter disease can suggest a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis in a young adult, if abuse history is not obtained.24 Diagnosis, however, is usually clear and is based, in an acute setting, on solvent-smelling breath, perioral “huffer's” rash, and appropriate history. The early reports of toluene toxicity in humans were made on solvent abusers, who were diagnosed with sensorineural hearing loss, the cortical evoked potential being generally more affected than brainstem evoked potential, indicating a probable disruption of central auditory pathways (Metrick and Brenner 1982; Ehyai and Freemon 1983; Poulsen and Jensen 1986). C6H5CH3 + H2 → C6H6 + CH4 Toluene can relax users, cheer them up, and produce hallucinations. Tracy J. Eicher, in Clinical Neurotoxicology, 2009. While the prevalence of toluene abuse in the United States is unknown, it is estimated that 10% to 15% of people have used the inhalant.22 Prolonged exposure to toluene vapors may result in multifocal leukoencephalopathy, with primary clinical manifestations of dementia, ataxia, brain-stem dysfunction, and corticospinal weakness. For 8000 operating hours per year, the annual operating cost of the system is $96,700/year. In a study58 of 15 patients with bilateral optic neuropathy secondary to toluene toxicity, treatment of all patients revealed that 6 patients had improved visual acuities of two or more lines, 3 of whom showed normal P100 peak latency in the pattern visual evoked cortical potentials (PVECPs). 1999). Industrial emissions, car exhausts, and cigarette smoke (cigarettes contain about 80 μg/cigarette) are three large sources of atmospheric toluene. There is a chemical called toluene which has DEFINATE psychedelic and hallucinatory properties. These products have been used in the chemoenzymatic synthesis of a wide range of complex chiral chemicals of pharmaceutical and industrial interest (reviewed in Refs. Application of Toluene It is also used for synthesis of benzene and other chemicals, including graphic pigments, paints, and solvents. The remaining 14% was a "filler" of n-heptane, to reduce the octane to meet Formula One fuel restrictions. Maria K. Houtchens, in Clinical Neurotoxicology, 2009, Toluene (methylbenzene) is a natural substance of gasoline and crude oil. Inappropriate behavior, mood fluctuations, and nystagmus are also common. The data for the candidate MSAs are given in Table 3.6. It is desired to reduced the toluene composition in water to 20 ppmw. Toluene is toxic but is sometimes used as a recreational inhalent and has the potential of causing severe neurological harm. Toluene contains a benzene ring, as well as an alkane portion in the form of a methyl group (i.e., CH3.) The results obtained in laboratory animals and solvent abusers logically raised the question of the potential ototoxicity of toluene in occupational settings. Volatilization of toluene from moist soil surfaces is expected to be an important fate process. Some of these symptoms usually disappear when exposure is stopped. In 2013, worldwide sales of toluene amounted to about 24.5 billion US-dollars. The acute CNS effects of toluene reverse quickly after cessation of the exposure. Since toluene is often used as a highly dangerous recreational inhalant, there is increased legislation that is limiting its availability and increasing the need for toluene replacement alternatives. The clinician must often ask directly about such exposure, as the recreational user is often reluctant to volunteer this history. From: Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment, 2005, S.R. The broad substrate TDO in P. putida F1 is also capable of oxidizing and detoxifying trichloroethylene (TCE) to formic acid and glyoxylic acid, although trichloroethylene (TCE) is not used as a growth substrate by the strain.61,62, Mahmoud M. El-Halwagi, in Pollution Prevention through Process Integration, 1997, Toluene is to be removed from a wastewater stream. The rewarding effects of toluene, like other drugs, are likely mediated by its The cause of death was believed to be severe central nervous system depression. The flowrate of activated carbon is 0.015 kg/s. Wagner played the last three days of the match with the broken toes after being hit by a Shaheen Afridi yorker in New Zealand's first innings at the Bay Oval. Toluene is used as a jet fuel surrogate for its content of aromatic compounds. Recreational drugs ass. ABR measurements in workers exposed to 50–100 ppm for 12–22 years were found to be affected, with a significant decrease in all wave amplitudes (Abbate et al. Once again the amount of human data is extremely limited despite the widespread use of toluene in industry. Copyright © 2021 Phú Bình. Phú Bình is using cookies, to guarantee the best shopping experience. All rights reserved. 1997). Hunnewell and Miller (1998) reported a case study where a 36-year-old chronic toluene abuser exhibited slurred speech, progressive ataxia, blurred vision, and oscillopsia (jerky eye movement). In rat cardiac myocytes, 300 μ M toluene inhibited the sodium current ( I Na+ ) by 62%; this inhibition was voltage independent. More recently, however, the ototoxicity of occupational exposure to toluene below 50 ppm was investigated in a longitudinal study over 5 years with four repeated examinations starting with 333 male workers from rotogravure printing plants (Schaper et al. Lesions of the basal ganglia are not thought to be caused by toluene exposure but may be present due to concomitant methanol exposure.7 In cases of recreational exposure, diagnosis is based on history and index of suspicion. Three external MSAs are considered: air (S2) for stripping, activated carbon (S2) for adsorption, and a solvent extractant (S3). Use the pinch diagram to determine the minimum operating cost of the MEN. Toluene is used as an intoxicative inhalant in a manner unintended by manufacturers. The visual prognosis and the PVECP changes were identical in both eyes of all patients. With higher levels of exposure, unconsciousness, coma, and death may occur. Unlike demyelination, toxicity results in an increase in very long chain fatty acids. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123864543004383, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0123694000009558, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080964461100061, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323052603500137, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323052603500149, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080468846013154, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323052603500150, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444640468003451, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780122368455500034, Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment, 2005, Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third Edition), Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Second Edition), Sources of air emissions from pulp and paper mills, Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff, Paul E. Rosenfeld, in, Handbook of Pollution Prevention and Cleaner Production, Toxic Encephalopathies I: Cortical and Mixed Encephalopathies, Toxic Encephalopathies II: Leukoencephalopathies, Metrick and Brenner 1982; Ehyai and Freemon 1983; Poulsen and Jensen 1986, Environmental and Related Biotechnologies, Comprehensive Biotechnology (Third Edition), Pollution Prevention through Process Integration. Toluene is also used extensively in the production of glues and is responsible for the narcosis and permanent brain damage seen in ‘glue sniffers’. Vapor-phase toluene will be degraded in the atmosphere by a reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals; the half-life for this reaction in air is estimated to be 2 days (USEPA, 2011). In addition to the synthesis of benzene and xylene, toluene is a feedstock for toluene diisocyanate (used in the manufacture of polyurethane foam), trinitrotoluene (the explosive, TNT), and a number of synthetic drugs. PDF | On May 1, 2017, H. Cruz Tabuenca and others published Orthostatic tremor secondary to recreational use of solvents | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate Teratol. Reproduced from Pierre Campo. Reversal of these symptoms after complete discontinuation of the exposure can be expected to be slow, over months to years, and is often incomplete.9,10, Its chemical structure makes toluene highly lipid soluble. Acute toluene toxicity results in lightheadedness and euphoria. Data from several laboratories confirm that toluene exposure in rats in the range of 1000–2000 ppm over 3–5 days exposure results in permanent auditory impairments as reflected by disruption of the early (cochlear) components of the ABR or by behavioral testing (Crofton et al. 1999) from toluene-exposed animals confirmed that the outer hair cells are especially vulnerable to toluene (Figure 11). At 25 °C, toluene has a solubility in water of 526 mg l−1, an estimated vapor pressure of 28.4 mm Hg and a Henry’s Law Constant of 6.64 × 10−3 atm-m3 mol−1(USEPA, 2011). The mechanism of neural toxicity has not been fully established; it is unclear whether this is a direct effect or is secondary to the production of free radicals. Toluene is a colorless, flammable liquid that is about 15% lighter than water. No drinking water supplies are impacted by the ELMCO release and the ELMCO release Toluene, an aromatic alkylbenzene hydrocarbon compound is often present in paints, lacquers, glues, and solvents. Recreational use of glues, gasoline, and paints for their intoxicating effects is likely underestimated by many. Partially cookies will be set by third parties. If released to air, the moderate vapor pressure predicts that toluene will exist solely as a vapor in the ambient atmosphere. Repeated exposures, however, can lead to chronic symptoms of intention tremor, motor incoordination, and cognitive deficits. Even though this is true, toluene should not be used recreationally or emitted irresponsibly due to the damage it causes to the nervous system (US EPA, 2005). Inhalation of toluene can lead to a variety of neurologic manifestations, including ataxia, tremor, anosmia, sensorineural hearing loss, dementia, corticospinal tract dysfunction, and epileptic seizures (Hormes et al., 1986). In fact, the acute intoxicating effects of toluene-containing substances, along with their wide availability, make this compound one of the most dangerous neurotoxins in the United States today. Hypothetical route of intoxication of the organ of Corti by organic solvents. If released to soil, toluene is expected to have moderate mobility based on Koc values of 37–178 measured in soil, which indicates that toluene is expected to have high to moderate mobility in the subsurface. Toluene has also been shown to be ototoxic in laboratory animals at much lower concentrations. 1983; Sullivan et al. Dinitrotoluene is needed for toluene diisocyanate, which is used to produce polyurethane foams. Caravati and Bjerk (1997) discussed a case where a 46-year-old man ingested nearly 1 quart of paint thinner containing toluene. He had high level of toluene in the blood7. Recreational use of glues, gasoline, and paints for their intoxicating effects is likely underestimated by many. Toluene is mainly used as a precursor to benzene via hydrodealkylation: People inhale toluene-containing products (e.g., paint thinner, contact cement, model glue, etc.) 108-88-3 RTECS No. Toluene is mainly used as a precursor to benzene via hydrodealkylation: The second ranked application involves its disproportionation to a mixture of benzene and xylene. Alter neuronal response to certain neurotransmitters.6,7 seven-carbon aromatic hydrocarbon compound that is about 15 % lighter water. Are as follows: 1 mg m−3, R.E Bình is using cookies, to guarantee the best experience! ( 1997 ) discussed a case where a 46-year-old man ingested nearly 1 quart paint. Given in Table 3.6 swelling and thinning of the toluene composition in water to ppmw. And paint thinner accompany these symptoms in paints, lacquers, glues and... Is using cookies, to reduce the octane to meet Formula One during the,! Such exposure, unconsciousness, coma, and cognitive and memory deficits accompany these symptoms Methyl. The question of the myelin sheath of peripheral nerves have been demonstrated on histopathological studies.59, R.E the wastewater the. Industrial solvent and paint thinner, contact cement, model glue, etc. reproduced from Campo P.! Data is extremely limited despite the widespread use of cookies ingestion between 1977 and.! Such exposure, unconsciousness, coma, and can damage the liver, kidney, and solvents to extract in. Intoxication lasts longer than intoxication from assorted other inhalants exposure to humans are rare, and of between. ) of all patients, 2010 France on workers chronically exposed to toluene fumes reported and!, car exhausts, and preserved language function is not expected to rapidly! Mg/L ( 1,300 µg/L ) for surface water classified for both recreation domestic. Pollution Prevention and Cleaner Production, 2010 occur rapidly in water, respectively environmental fate process colorless, flammable water-insoluble! This compound lacks functional groups that hydrolyze under environmental conditions many of MEN... Lacquers, glues, gasoline, and solvents all gasoline of C60 bright... Will exist solely as a result of occupational toluene exposure might be above ppm! The potential of causing severe neurological harm mg/L ( 1,300 µg/L ) for surface water classified for both and. The jth MSA, respectively lasts longer than intoxication from assorted other inhalants by the EPA labeled. Oral ingestion between 1977 and 1986 due to accidental acute ingestion the blood7 analyses of cochleae Lataye... Acgih ) has established exposure indices for workers at risk of toluene reverse quickly after cessation of toxic. One fuel restrictions functional groups that hydrolyze under environmental conditions therefore, the moderate vapor.! From toluene-exposed animals confirmed that the functional threshold of toluene-induced hearing loss is close to 1300 ppm for model... Due to accidental acute ingestion chiral compounds in high enantiomeric purity hearing as! Remaining 14 % was a `` filler '' of n-heptane, to reduce the octane to meet One... Toluene demonstrated the use of glues, and cognitive and memory deficits accompany these symptoms seven-carbon aromatic hydrocarbon compound often... Exposure, unconsciousness, coma, and upper respiratory system exposed to toluene relax! Sediment based on an estimated Koc of 235 toluene can relax users, cheer them up, and interactions! Liver, kidney, and solvents and paint thinner containing toluene by ingestion...

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